**Primary school mathematics** consists of mathematics taught in primary, or elementary, schools — that is, roughly ages 5–10. It is followed by secondary school mathematics.

Note that the usage of the term *primary education* is not consistent throughout the world, but it is convenient to separate the mathematics typically studied before adolescence from that studied during and after this period, since the former is generally more concrete and the latter more abstract.

Major mathematical concepts introduced at the primary school level include:

- Counting
- Numbers
- Arithmetic
- Shapes (the beginnings of geometry)
- Pre-algebra